In 1941 the then ruler of Tripura declared eleven thousand drones (70,400acres ) of land as reserved for habitation and farming by some of the tribal communities in kalyanpur area khowai subdivision .it was proclaimed that people belonging to our tribal communities in the said area would not be permitted to sell or transfer their land, the government would buy it for inclusion within khas land.
The objective behind this order was to encourage some tribal communities such as Puran Tripura, noatoa, jamatia, Reang, and Halam, to settle down on land and get accustomed to plugh cultivation. Subsequently, this order was found to be inadequate and in 1943 the ruler, having felt the need of declaring more forest lands as reserved, issued a second proclamation in terms of which 1950 square miles of land were declared as reserved for tribal subjects in different sub Division s of the state. It was stipulated that within the reserved area person s belonging to non-tribal communities would not be allowed to transfer lands to anybody without permission from the government. Even the, sell, transfer or mortgage their land s without permission. The main purpose of this order was to step illegal transfer of tribal lands. This makes it evident that even in 1943 the then rulers felt the need of adopting special measures to safeguard the interests of the tribal people. But unfortunately, this order was carried out more in breach. than in observance at later dates, with the result that the interest of the tribal people could not be provided.
In 1952 Jawaharlal Nehru, the then prime minister of India, convened a national conference to discuss problems affecting the scheduled castes and scheduled Tribe population of the country. In that conference Sri Dasarath Deb, the Member of the parliament, proposed that a definite area should be declared as reserved for the tribal people of Tripura where non-tribal people should not be allowed to settle down permanently and by or sell any land. He also observed that there was nothing new in this proposal aimed at defending the interest of the tribal people.
Subsequently, the Tripura Rajya GanaMukti Parishad in a memorandum submitted to the Prime minister of India on September,10-1955 states d “……………. the scramble for land in Tripura has reached such a point that it is no longer possible for the tribal jhumias to find New lands for jumping land s traditionally used for cultivation. So government khas lands
as reserved areas for rehabilitation of the tribal communities.
The Dhebar Commission was appointed in 1960 to examine the problems of the scheduled castes and scheduled Tribe population of the country. In a note submitted to the commissioner Shri N M.Patnaik, then Chief Commissioner Tripura submitted that a specified area should be declared as reserved for the tribal people under schedule V of the Constitution. The Dhebar Commission recommended, inter alia, that Tribal Development Block might besant us as an experimental measure in Tribal compact area, and material improvement among the tribal people, measure s under schedule V might be given a trial.
Thereafter the Administration Reform s Commission was set up under the Chairmanship of Shri k. Hanuman thaiya examined this issue and suggested that some compact tribal areas in the state like Manipur and Tripura might be specified and Tribal Council was set up there along with a delegation of well-defined administrative Powered.
In 1955 Shri G.B. Pant, then Home Minister in the Central Government expressed the opinion that the pressure of population had already reached a saturation point in Tripura and it would not be advisable to allow further absorption of additional people in such a tiny state.
However, as a result of the continuous influx of displaced pi into Tripura, the tribal people began to lose their land s on account of transfers, even though such transfer of land s was not in accordance with the law. The legal protection provide under section 187 of the land Revenue and land Reforms Act of 1960 and its subsequent amendments of 1974 did not register any significant improvement in the situation.
It is against ti background that the Government of Tripura decides to set up an Autonomous Council for the predominantly tribal area of the state to introduce internal autonomy in tribal compact areas and thereby protect the social, economic, and cultural interests of the tribal population. It felt that the Autonomous District Council should be set up terms of schedule vl of the Constitution. Pending that it has been decided to establish the Autonomous District Council in terms of schedule Vll of the Constitution Accordingly the Tripura trible areas autonomous District Council Bill, 1979 was unanimously passed by the Tripura legislative assembly on March 23, 1979.
Under auspices of the left front government, the Tripura trible areas autonomous District Council was constituted thought vote by secret ballot be in January 1982. The election was held in an atmosphere of peace’ and Amity 80% of the voters, both trible and non-tribal, exercised their franchise. The election was held in all 28 constituencies of the District Council. The newly elected members were sworn on the 18th of January 1982. On the same day, the first session of the Council was held to elect the chairman and vice-chairman of the Council.
Shri Narayan Rupini and Aghore Debbarma were elections through vote amongst 28 members as the chairman and the vice-chairman of the Council respectively. Thereafter five members namely Shri aradhan sahaji, Surendra Trang, Anil Kumar Chakma, Sridam pal, Durbajoy Trang were appointed by the chairman as executive members. The Executive committee of the Auotomus district was thus constituted with members including the chairman and vice-chairman.
In spite of having several limitations the newly constructed council undertook measures for raising the standard of living of the people both tribal and non-tribal living in the ADC areas. But the demand for constructing the Autonomous District Council under subsided. On the other hand, the state Government the state Assembly and all the democracy-loving people of and all the democracy-loving people of Tripura lent solid support to the demand for constructing the Autonomous District Council under schedule Vl. At last, the democratic demands of the people prevailed upon the central government. In the last session of the seventh parliament, the constitution was amended unanimously for introducing schedule VI in Tripura. On the 31st March 1985, the council under schedule VII stood dissolved as a result of the introduction of schedule VI of the Constitution to Tripura. The effect from April 1, 1985.
FORMATION Of Tripura tribal Autonomous District Council under schedule VI of the Constitution of INDIA.
In a meeting of the state cabinet on the 7th May 1985 the Tripura trible areas Autonomous District Council constitution and election Rules, 1985 were passed for implementation. Before finalizing the matter. the drafting of the in rules was sent to different political parties for their considered opinions.
For the constitution of the Autonomous district council under schedule vI of the constitution, the first election was held through the secret ballot within the district council areas on June 30, 1985. The election was held in all the 28 Constitution cities. The left and Democratic Front secured the majority in the council. The elected Members of the council were sworn in on the 19th July 1985 and the chairman and chief executive member were also elected on the same day by the members of the district council.
The 2nd election was held on 10th July 1990 in all the 28 constituencies but two members were subsequently elected as a member of the legislative assembly and thus they resigned. The Governor also nominated two members as per the provision of the Tribal Areas Autonomous district council. (Council election and Conduct of business) Rules 1985.
The 3rd election was held on 26th and 29th July 1995 only is 24 constituencies Election is remaining 4constituencies could not be held due to some court case. The left and Democratic Front occupied. 23 Rd seats and one went in favor of T . U.J.S. The elected members of the council were sworn in on 4th August 1995. The Chairman and Chief Executive members were elected on 9th August. 1995 The E M s along with the C.E.M took the Oath of Secretary on the same day.
It needs to be mentioned here that the Autonomous district council under schedule vI of the constitution is vested with two types of powers:- Legislative powers and Executive powers. The Legislative Department. of the council is headed by the chairman who summons the meeting of the council. From time to time in connection with the approval of the budget. discussion on bills. Rules and regulations submitted by the treasury bench and passing of the same thereof For conducting the council session normally the procedure following in the state legislative assembly are followed. The chairman has his own secretariat. There is one secretary of the district council who is appointed by the Governor.
With the concurrence of the district council ( Rules,161). All Executive powers are vested with the Executive Committee which is headed by the chief executive member. The legislative and executive powers of the district council as derived from the provision of schedule VI of the constitution.
District council Administration
In terms of section 157(1) of the council Rules 1985. The subjects are different entrusted to the members of the executive committee.
In terms of section 175 Of the council Act, a general meeting of the district council is held every three months in which decisions on different administrative financial and development programs are arrived at.
Following the formation of the council officers have been appointed to look after executive works. The Chief Executive Officer of the rank of secretary has been deputed to the council by the State Government. Three Executive Officers are also presently working in the council. In addition, there are the following principal officers.
1) Superintending Engineering 2) Principal officer (education) 3) principal officer I C A T sports. (4) principal officer LRSO (5) industry (6) tribal welfare (7)Co-Operative (8) Agriculture (9) Forest (10) Health (11) Animal Resources Development (12) Fisheries (13) Law( 14) Panchayat
The C has powers to appoint its own staff in terms of recruitment and appointment rules approved by the state Government of the council are implemented by the District Council itself.
Powers and functions
The main purpose of the Autonomous district council as envisaged in the Tripura tribal areas Autonomous district council Rules 1985 is the self-governance and rapid Development of T the tribal compact areas in the state. The Powers and Functions of the council are broad as under :
a) The following matters
are under the exclusive collection and administration of the council :
a). Allotment, occupation use, or setting apart of land other than reserved forest :
2) Management of forests s not bring reserve forest s.
3) Use of canal wetter & watercourse for agriculture.
4) Jhum.5) Village Communities or Council.
6 ) Any other matter relating to the administration
In clouding public health and sanitation.
B). The council may be established or managed. :-
1) Primary school s.
3) Market s.
4) Cattle pounds.
8) Roads transport and waterways.
C) The Government may entrust functions relating to the following matters to the council
a ) Agriculture.
b) Animal Resources Development.
C) Communities Projects.
D) Co-Operative Societies.
E) Social Welfare
F) Village planning.
I) Any other matter to which the executive power of the state extends.
A ) The Council has Powered to frame bylaws in the following matters,
A). Inheritance of property of schedule tribes.
B) Marriage and divorce where any party belongs to scheduled tribes,
C) Social customer of scheduled tribes,
D) Allotment, occupation, use or setting apart of all lands other reserve forest s,
E) Management of forest other than reserve forest.
F ) Use of canal or watercourses for purposes of agriculture,
H) Village Committee s or Council,
I) Any other Matter relating to administration including public health and sanitation,
3) The Council may regulate and control,:-
1) Money – lending,
4) The Council may, with the previous approval of the Government, make regulations for administration and control of,
1) Primary school s
3) Market s
4) Cattle pounds
7 ) Roads
8) Road transform and waterways,
III ). Financial
A) The Council shall get a share of :-
1) Forest royalties,
2) Licence or lease for the purpose of prospecting or extracting minerals granted by the state Government.
B) The Council shall power to have contacted the following taxes.
1) Professional tax,
2) land Revenue.
3) Agriculture income tax,
Iv) The Council shall the powers to levy and collect the fees,:-
1) Fees for maintenance and development of schools, dispensaries, or roads.
2) Entry of goods into markets and tools on passages and goods carried in ferries.
3) Fees on vehicles ( other than mechanically propelled and boats.)
4) Fees on the animal.
The hill people of Tripura had been agitating for long years to preserve and promote their distinct ways of life. It is against this background that the left
Front Govt .of the state decided to set up an Autonomous District Council for the predominantly tribal areas of the state to introduce internal autonomy in tribal compact Ares and thereby to protect the social, economic, and cultural interests of the tribal population.
The objective behind setting up the Autonomous District Council is to hand over certain administrative legal authority to the council in order that it may devote concerted attention to all aspects of cultural, social, and economic improvement of the tribal people who for historical reasons s presently belong to the weaker sections of society and thereby, to free them from all kinds of social injustice.
There is no doubt that the formation of the District Council under schedule Vl of the Constitution of INDIA had fulfilled the long-cherished demand of schedule hill people of Tripura for self-government in tribal majority areas. In this context, it deserves particular mention that which wresting the right of autonomy, the tribal people had not agitated all by themselves. The democratic people of the state, in general, lent powerful support to their movement.
One of the important features of the Council is that a single council has been formed for all the tribes as all of them belong to the weaker section of the society.
With the view to protecting the interest of the non-tribal people in ADC areas. 3 seats of the Council are earmarked for them. Not only that, in the present council, there is one non – tribal Executive Member.
The main objective of forming the District Council under schedule Vl is to remove within a short time the material disparities between the advanced and backward section of society, to strengthen the bonds of the unit between the tribal and non-tribal masses, emancipate not only tribal people but all the deprived people from all types of injustice and exploitation. Tripura tribal Area Autonomous District Council is a symbol of integrity, harmony, and unity of the tribal and non-tribal people of the state. Tripura tribal areas autonomous District Council is marching through the concerted efforts of the masses.
At a Glance
Area and people
Figures on area and population of the District Council are as follows:-
10478,78 sq. Km. Area.
Adc area 7 132 56 sq km.
Source:- I C A T Department. khumulwng.